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Papyrus is an ancient paper-like material that originated in Ancient Egypt and Syria, which alsmost single-handedly helped the rise of the first modern civilizations. Here you can read more about its rich history and the way it faded away from use when modern wood-based paper appeared.
Vellum is a high quality form of parchment, paper like material that was created from skins of animals for centuries in all around the world before arrival of Chinese paper. Here you can learn much more about it and how it was used in post-Roman history of Europe.
History of paper machines started from the moment first Chinese paper recipes arrived to Europe in 11th century AD. From that point on more and more effort was placed on solving the riddle of easy and efficient paper production, with it finally being solved in early 19th century with famous Fourdrinier paper machines. Find out more about history of those machines here.
Parchment is a paper-like material created from the skins of animals. Today it is remembered as one of the primary mean of data collection from the moment Roman Empire started its rule to the arrival and proliferation of paper in 17th century AD. Read more about history of parchment here.